96. Thom Shanker, "Rumsfeld Doubles Estimate For Cost
of Troops in Iraq; General Says U.S. Expects to Keep Force at 145,000
'For the Foreseeable Future,'" New York times, July 10, 2003. As of May
14, 2004, U.S. military casualties in Iraq since March 2003 had reached
782 dead and more than 4490 wounded; U.S. military deaths in Afghanistan
since October 2001 had reached 119 (for updated numbers, see:
97. Unnamed member of a group of CIA and Special Forces paramilitary
operatives cited in Bob Woodward, Bush at War (new York: Simon and
Schuster, 2002), p. 352.
98. For updated information on U.S. military contracts, see the Center
for Defense Information's website: www.cdi.org.
100. Robert Bryce, "The Candidate from Brown & Root," The Austin
Chronicle, Aug. 25, 2000.
101. Jane Mayer, "Contract Sport: What did the Vice-President do for
Halliburton?" New Yorker, Feb. 16 & 23, 2004.
102. In 2000, Cheney left Halliburton to run for vice-president, but he
retained $18 million in stock options and receives about 4150,000 a year
in deferred compensation (Mayer).
103. Katherine Seelye, "Cheney's Five Draft Deferments during the
Vietnam Era emerge as a Campaign Issue," New York Times, May 1, 2004;
Jon Wiener, "Hard to Muzzle: The Return of Lynne Cheney," The Nation,
Oct. 2, 2000.
104. Seymour Hersh, "Lunch with the Chairman: Why was Richard Perle
Meeting with Adnan Khashoggi?" New Yorker, March 17, 2003, pp. 76-81.
105. See, for instance, a 1996 policy proposal entitled, "A Clean Break:
A New Strategy for Securing the Realm," penned by a group of
neo-conservative strategists led by Perle for the Netanyahu government
in Israel. The proposal can be seen at: www.israelieconomy.org/strat1.htm.
106. Robert Higgs, ed., Arms, Politics and the Economy (New York: Holmes
& Meier, 1980), Preface, p. xiii.
107. The 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty had outlawed defensive
missile systems. See Joshua Cohen, "An Interview with Ted Postol: What's
Wrong With Missile Defense," Boston Review, Oct./Nov. 2001; David
Sanger, "Washington's New Freedom and New Worries in the Post-ABM-Treaty
Era," New York Times, Dec. 15, 2001.
108. Paul Richter, "Plan for new nukes clears major hurdle," Los Angeles
times, May 10, 2003. For updated information on U.S. nuclear weapons
policies see the Physicians for Social Responsibility website:
109. R. Jeffrey Smith, "U.S. Urged to Cut 50% of A- Arms: Soviet Breakup
Is Said to Allow Radical Shift in Strategic Targeting," Washington Post,
Jan. 6, 1991, p. A1. Also see: Michael Gordon, "U.S. Nuclear Plan Sees
New Weapons and New Targets," New York Times, March 10, 2002.
110. Judith Miller, "U.S. Seeks Changes in Germ War Pact," New York
Times, Nov. 1, 2001; William Broad and Judith Miller, "U.S. Recently
Produced Anthrax in a Highly Lethal Powder Form," New York Times, Dec.
111. William Broad and Judith Miller, "Germs: Biological Weapons, and
America's Secret War," (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001); William Blum.
112. Data are from the following years: The U.S., 2004; Japan, 2002;
Russia and China, 2001. For updated information on U.S. and world
military spending, see the Center for Defense Information website:
113. Center for Defense Information, 2001-2002 Military Almanac, p. 35
(see www.cdi.org). For the 2003 and 2004 fiscal years, Congress approved
special appropriations of $166 billion to finance the invasion and
occupation of Iraq (David Firestone, "Bush Likely to Get Spending
Request, Lawmakers Agree," New York Times, Sept. 9, 2003).
114. Center for Defense Information, www.cdi.org/issues/milspend.html
115. Michael Renner, National Security: The Economic and Environmental
Dimensions (Washington, D.C.: World Watch Institute, 1989), p. 23.
116. The War Resisters League's annual analysis of total U.S. military
expenditures can be found at: www. warresisters.org/piechart.htm.
117. The Wax Resisters League estimates that about 46% of federal tax
revenues are used for military expenses (ibid.). Total 2000 Federal
individual income tax revenues ($1,004,500,000,000) multiplied by 46%,
divided by 104,705,000 households = $4,417 (www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/01statab/fedgov.pdf,
pp. 21 and 305).
118. Timothy Saasta, et al., America's Third Deficit: Too Little
Investment in People and Infrastructure (Washington, D.C.: Center for
119. Jobs With Peace Campaign, Fact Sheet No.3 (Boston 1990).
120. Saasta; Institute for Policy Studies, Harvest of Shame: Ten Years
of Conservative Misrule (Washington, D.C.: Institute for Policy Studies,
1991 ), p. 11; Jane Midgley, The Women's Budget, 3rd Edition
(Philadelphia: Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, 1989)
121. Saasta; Midgley, p. 19.
122. Institute for Policy Studies, p. 11.
123. Midgley, p. 16; Pam Belluck, "New Wave of the Homeless Floods
Cities' Shelters," New York Times, Dec. 18, 2001.
124. James Dao, "War Mutes Critics of Costly Carrier Groups," New York
Times, November 11, 2001.
125. Prenatal care costs $625 per mother: Background Material and Data
on Programs within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means
(Washington D.C.: U.S. Congress, 1990).
126. The Head Start program costs $2,600 per student annually: U.S.
127. Private clinics charge about $3,000 per year for intensive
outpatient drug or alcohol treatment: Survey by author.
128. Citizens Budget Campaign, It's Our Budget, It's Our Future
129. Dao, "War Mutes Critics of Costly Carrier Groups."
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