COERCIVE PERSUASION AND SCIENTOLOGY
by Lawrence Wollersheim
This appendix was submitted in sum and substance to the California Court of Appeals, the California Supreme Court and the U.S. Supreme Court as an appendix to existing briefs in the Lawrence Wollersheim vs. Scientology, Case No. C332027 case. Their purpose was to inform the court as to the actual history, nature, activities, and goals of Scientology as opposed to what Scientology's propaganda machine would like the court to believe. Must Reading for someone interested in Scientology's financial history.
Appendix Section 4 
Scientology has a single distinguishing element, beyond the international pattern of criminal and coercive activities mentioned in the other appendices. This element, Coercive Persuasion, adds an additional intimidating and formidable peril to this already "extraordinary" organization.
Coercive persuasion, or thought reform,  is a coordinated technology of gradually applied, coercive influence and behavioral control. The program's originators implement this technology to profit in some way, usually politically or financially. 
Usually applied in a group setting, the victims are unaware that it is their organizational "friends and allies" who are surreptitiously applying the techniques. This is effective because it keeps the victim from putting up the ego defense mechanisms we normally maintain in known adversarial situations.
The essential strategy used by the operators of these programs is to systematically select, sequence, and coordinate many coercive, anxiety, and stress producing tactics over continuous periods of time. In such a program the subject is forced to adapt in a series of tiny "invisible" steps. Each step is sufficiently small and minor so that the subject does not notice the change in themselves. They do not become aware of the hidden organizational purpose of the program until later, if ever.
Coercive persuasion acts to gradually  overcome the will without convincing the judgment. The victims lose their ability to make independent decisions and exercise an informed consent. Their defenses, cognition, values, attitudes, conduct, and ability to reason have been technologically undermined.
Relevant to the use of coercive persuasion and Scientology, there is a telling but little known text written by L. Ron Hubbard. This text is "The Brainwashing manual." The explanation originating from Hubbard was that in 1955 it was found on the doorstep. Some concerned somebody had "slipped it under the door of a Scientology org." [organization].
L. Ron Hubbard Jr., in the book "L. Ron Hubbard Messiah or Madman?" states:
The Brainwashing Manual consisted of, according to the manual's forward, a transcribed lecture by the dreaded Beria, head of Stalin's secret police. The lecture was supposedly given to students of psycho politics at Leningrad university around 1950. It was used as a textbook on how to wage psychological warfare on Western democracies. This psychological assault was to be eventually followed by an eventual takeover of the West. This takeover would be done by first taking over the psychiatric professions, and the psychiatric and mental health organizations. 
More important than Hubbard trying to
hide his authorship and his detailed knowledge of brainwashing
techniques, the manual reflects plausible reasons for, and the role of,
coercive persuasion in Scientology. "If you want to see how LRH (L. Ron
Hubbard) really worked things org-wise, from the mid 60's on, you just
have to read the brainwashing manual." L. Ron Hubbard Jr.
A TECHNICAL OVERVIEW OF COERCIVE PERSUASION
Coercion is, "to restrain or constrain by FORCE...." Legally it often implies the direct use of physical force or physical or legal threat. This traditional legal idea of coercion is far better understood than coercive persuasion. Coercive persuasion is the effective restraining, impairing, or compelling through the gradual and continuing application of psychological FORCES of intense anxiety/shame/guilt manipulation combined with strong emotional arousal.
A coercive persuasion program is a behavioral change technology applied to cause the "learning" and "adoption" of a set of behaviors or an ideology under specific conditions. It is distinguished from other forms of benign, social learning, or peaceful persuasion by the conditions under which it is conducted, specifically, by the techniques and the SEVERE DEGREE of environmental and interpersonal manipulation employed to suppress particular behaviors and to train others.
Coercive persuasion is a psychological FORCE technology similar in effect to our legal ideas of undue influence. Gradually, continuing over time, due to its cumulative effects it can be more effective than pain, torture, drugs, or the use of physical force and physical and legal threats.
The Korean war, "Manchurian candidate" misconception of the necessary use of suggestibility increasing drugs, and/or the use of physical pain, captivity, and torture to effect thought reform is associated with the older ideas and models of brainwashing. Their presence is not part of, or necessary for, the newer coercive persuasion programs to be effective.
With the improvements of coercive persuasion you can change a person's attitude without their knowledge or volition. You can create new "attitudes" where they will do things "willingly" that they may formerly have detested.
Changing attitude also could include creating or changing the attitudes and appearances of sincerity and enthusiastic commitment. As one could imagine, in a religious setting, coercive persuasion applied to building member "sincerity" wreaks havoc with, and creates new paradoxes surrounding the validity of the threshold "good faith," sincerity test.
If central beliefs or ultimate concerns have been artificially created, transferred, or maintained by the application of coercive persuasion which bypassed true voluntarism, (freedom of conscience without any degree of compulsion in matters of belief), can there be free exercise rights for these "beliefs," and can the organization that implemented this technology be an establishment of religion?
In Booklet of the Professional Auditors Course (1982), L. Ron Hubbard states:
When coercive persuasion has been effectively used, we are obliged to rethink our ideas of sincerity. With the refinements of the psychological force technology of coercive persuasion, there is now a workable technology for creating a kind of artificially created "sincerity" that is so passionate, so zealous, so engrossing, that it imposes itself essentially as fact.
The advances in the severe anxiety and emotional arousal techniques of coercive persuasion supersede the old style thought reform programs that relied on pain, captivity, torture, or drugs. These older systems do not change attitude so that the subjects in reality follow orders "willingly." Therein lies the greatest danger to a free society -- coercive persuasion changes the internal attitude toward the action and the behavior, not just the behavior.
It is a non-violent, "invisible force" technology which appears to have the "willing" cooperation of its victims. In this information age, this subtle technology's advantages and possibilities for political and financial abuse are limited only by the imaginations, motivations, and the power of will of its users.
Because of this "new technology" advance, it is now necessary for our definition of sincerity to evolve to compensate for technology, just as our definition of religion has evolved over our constitutional history to compensate for new religions and non-theistic expressions.
THE TACTICS OF COERCIVE PERSUASION
Coercive persuasion has seven main types of tactics. A coercive persuasion program can still be effective without the presence of all seven types of tactics.
TACTIC 1. Increase suggestibility and/or cognitive confusion to "soften up" the individual in preparation for thought reform. This is done through hypnotic or other suggestibility increasing techniques such as: decreased sleep, drastic nutritional restriction of either calories or protein, excessive and exact repetition of simple activities, or extended visual, audio, verbal, or tactile fixation exercises.
Organizations which use coercive persuasion often develop selection and culling techniques to identify the most hypnotically suggestible, and to isolate and remove the least suggestible. From HCO policy letter 27 Oct. 1964, " Policies on Physical Healing, Insanity and Potential trouble sources," a Scientology policy that directs what types of people must not be accepted for services:
The common denominators to the culling out process are criticalness, presence of doubt, or access to information critical to Scientology. 
Many of Scientology's auditing processes covertly induce hypnotic trance and increase suggestibility. Questions which are themselves covert suggestions, are repeated in conditions of relaxed, highly focused attention. Later auditing sessions usually rely on earlier control and trance training established in Scientology's visual and tactile fixation drills called TR-O and the Objectives.
TACTIC 2. Social isolation is promoted. Contact with family and friends is abridged, as is contact with other persons who do not share group approved attitudes. Economic and other dependence on the group is fostered. Using rewards and punishments, efforts are made to establish considerable control over a person's social environment, time, and sources of social support. They are manipulated in such a way also to inhibit observable behavior that reflects the values, routines, and life organization the individual displayed before contact with the group.
TACTIC 3. Disconfirming information and non-supporting opinions are prohibited in group communication. Rules exist about permissible topics to discuss with outsiders. Communication is highly controlled. An "in-group" language is usually constructed.
This tactic helps to maintain an uninformed state in the victim and a closed system of logic. One main theme in Orwell's 1984 was that if language can be controlled thought can be controlled. Controlling thought allows you to control action or inhibit rebellion.
TACTIC 4. Attack the stability and quality of evaluations of self concepts. Frequent and intense attempts are made to cause a person to re-evaluate the most central aspects of their experience of self and prior conduct in negative ways. Efforts are designed to destabilize and undermine the subject's basic consciousness, reality awareness, world view, emotional control, and defense mechanisms as well as getting them to reinterpret their life's history, and adopt a new version of causality, usually some non-Cartesian closed logic system. This tactic is the primary effective tactic of coercive persuasion.
TACTIC 5. Intense and frequent attempts are made to undermine a person's confidence in himself and their judgment creating a sense of powerlessness.
Criticism or complaints are handled by showing the subject that he or she is defective, not the organization. In effect, the subject is taught the system is always right and they are always wrong. They soon learn the true coercive persuasion system refuses to be modified except by inconceivable executive order.
TACTIC 6. Strong applications of non-physical punishments are used such as humiliation, loss of privilege, social isolation, social status changes, intense anxiety, guilt, manipulation and other techniques for creating strong aversive emotional arousals, etc.
In this tactic Scientology also uses interrogation style confessions  to discover and use the member's guilt, shame, and anxiety weak points.
(Use your graphics file viewer to examine the enclosed .PCX files which contain images of Scientology's confessional technology using the E-meter as a lie detector.)
TACTIC 7. Certain secular psychological threats are used or are present: That failure to adopt the approved attitude, belief, or consequent behavior will lead to severe punishment or dire consequences (e.g. physical or mental illness, drug dependence, economic collapse, social failure, divorce, disintegration, failure to find a mate, etc.).
These seven tactics help to bring and hold the victim at the point of maximum stress, usually without inducing psychosis. Unlike the older brainwashing technologies, the newer applications of coercive persuasion are less well monitored on an individual basis, more powerful, less predictable, and applied faster. Passing beyond the point of maximum stress into psychosis has become a more common occurrence.
In United States v. Lee 455 U.S. 252,257,258 (1982), the California Supreme court found that:
RELIGION AND COERCIVE PERSUASION
Coercive persuasion is antithetical to the First Amendment. It contains aspects which could be interpreted as constituting the illegal acts of fraud, false imprisonment, coercion, undue influence, involuntary servitude, intentional infliction of emotional distress, outrageous conduct, and other tortious acts.
It is the unfair manipulation of the biological and psychological weaknesses and susceptibilities of one's fellow men. It is a psychological force not of a free society, but of a criminal or totalitarian society.
Coercive persuasion is not a religious practice. It is an other determined covert control technology. It is not a belief or an ideology. It is a process that impairs rationality.
As a process it can be examined separately from any message content it may contain. This is similar to examining the technical processes used in a hypnotic induction separately from examining the meaning or value of any hypnotic suggestions given during hypnosis. Examining processes, never beliefs, will not violate anyone's First Amendment religious protections.
John Dewey believed that, "the human power to respond to reason and truth protects democracy." Any organization using coercive persuasion on its members that also claims to be a religion is turning the sacred trust and privileges of our democratic First Amendment sanctuary into a fortress for psychological assault. It is covertly twisting religious freedom to deny our more basic constitutional rights to non-interfered with rationality in our freedom of thought and free will processes.
Freedom of religion cannot exist without first having an absolutely "protected" freedom of thought. Freedom of religion without this freedom of thought is an absurdity.
There exists a great danger in this creeping infiltration of coercive persuasion into American society through the "back door" of the religious sanctuary.  Coercive persuasion attacks our ability to exercise rationality, meaningful self-determinism, informed consent, and free will.
There are several factors regarding Scientology's use of coercive persuasion that add to the urgency for immediate exposure and legal action:
1. Scientology's marketing targets susceptible and inexperienced teenagers and young adults unaware of such technology.
2. Scientology is an international, well-organized, well-staffed, and well-financed conglomerate/secret society. (See the following copies of Scientology's own promotional literature.)
3. Scientology's repeated history of activities against adversaries that would threaten its purposes.
4. The Jonestown Guyana tragedy and the Nuremberg lessons.
5. This leads to the single most dangerous aspect of Scientology to society -- Scientology's use of coercive persuasion, (thought reform,) to effect the standardized gradual mental transference of the Hubbard mentality, values, fanaticism, and cosmology into hundreds of thousands of naive adolescents and young adults unaware that their effective free will, free exercise, rationality, and judgment have been undermined by this sophisticated new technology.
This is being done through what Scientology calls their "100% standard technology." This standardized thought reform technology represents the largest and best staticised use of coercive persuasion techniques applied in a liability immunized, tightly controlled thought reform field experiment ever attempted in the free world...
Time and advancing technology have presented a serious challenge to our freedom and rationality, not on shrinking but highly visible traditional battlefields that dare not go nuclear, but in the new, subtle, and invisible battlefields for the conquest and control of the mind.
Constant vigilance to change and the new technological developments will always be our price for freedom.
l. Technical aspects of this appendix are derived in part, from "Thought Reform Programs and the production of psychiatric casualties," Psychiatric Annuals, April 1990 by Margaret Thaler Singer PhD and Richard Ofshe PhD.
2. E H. Scheim introduced the term coercive persuasion to psychiatric literature in "Coercive Persuasion," Norton 1961. R.J. Lifton introduced the term thought reform to psychiatric literature in "Thought Reform And The Psychology of Totalism," Norton 1961.
3. Religions are created for the good of their members. Organizations using coercive persuasion are created for the good of their leaders, e.g. the Ninth Circuit affirmed the Tax Courts finding that Scientology did not qualify for the federal tax exemption normally granted to religious organizations because it was found to have diverted its profits to private individuals. See Church of Scientology v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, 823 F.2d(9th Cir. 19B7), cert. den. 4B6 U.S. 108 5.Ct. 1752 (1988). Also see Hernandez v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, U.S 109 S.Ct. 2163,2142 n.4 (1989).
4. Gradual is the key subtle element of coercive persuasion. Not all individuals involved in a group that uses coercive persuasion will always have had the same amount of coercive persuasion applied to them. Generally the further one progresses from the "outer circle" to the "inner circle," i.e. staff members or higher executives, the more, and more intensely one experiences the application of coercive persuasion procedures. In Scientology this can be seen in the extreme, in the Rehabilitation Project Force (RPF), used on Wollersheim and other "problem" staff members. See Pet. at 26a-28a, 6a-9a, U.S. 89-1361.
5. From" L Ron Hubbard Messiah or Madman?" ch. 9 The Brainwashing Manual. Also see Scientology's secret goals in appendix 1.
6 From "L Ron Hubbard Messiah or Madman?" Ch. 9.
7. Subsequent quotes under the HUBBARD/"BERIA" heading are all from "L. Ron Hubbard Messiah or Madman?"
8. Thinkingness, is one of L. Ron Hubbard's literary signatures. He frequently transmutes verbs into nouns.
9. Defined legally as, 1) any improper or wrongful constraint, machination, or urgency of persuasion whereby the will of the person is overpowered and he is induced to do or forbear an act which he would not do or would do if left to act freely. Influence which deprives person influenced of free agency or destroys freedom of his will and renders it more the will of another than his own. 2) Misuse of position of confidence or taking advantage of a person's weakness, infirmity, or distress to change improperly that person's actions or decision.
10. Sometimes it is the person themselves who states what is a belief for them, what is central, or what is an ultimate concern. Coercive Persuasion's "new technology" ability to alter attitude and belief unknowingly, moves the problem of determining sincerity beyond the effectiveness of traditional "good faith" and fraud tests, without in applicable cases, the additional inclusion of the examination of technical processes used, (not content).
11. The human mind is well known to be subject to trance and suggestibility. Some theories suggest a possible genetic origin for this "trance ability." In the current population estimates are that 59% of the population is very highly suggestible, 15% highly suggestible, 60% moderately suggestible, 15% highly unsuggestible (critical and doubting), and the last 5% completely unsuggestible.
12. If necessary, these confessions can also be used to try to silence defectors. The Armstrong court record verifies Scientology's secret use of member confessions for blackmail as part of their standard policy.
13. Beatings are no longer necessary in modern coercive persuasion.
14. From the Armstrong court record revealing the hand written affirmation meditations of L Ron Hubbard, "You can be merciless whenever your will is crossed and you have the right to be merciless."
15. Also see, Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives Staff Report, "The Assassination of Representative Leo F. Ryan and the Jonestown, Guyana Tragedy," (1979).
16. Four recent "back door" cases, all involving a coercive persuasion focus, and well organized and financed "religious" organizations, have recently come before the U.S. Supreme Court: Robin George v. International Society of Krishna Consciousness U.S. as-1399, Holy Spirit Association for Unification of World Christianity [the Moonies] v. David Molko and Tracy Leal U.S. 88-1600, see in particular Brief in opposition to Writ of Certiorari, Church Universal and Triumphant Inc. v. Linda Witt U.S. 89-672, Wollersheim v. Church of Scientology of California U.S. 84-1367.
17. Robin George v. International Society of Krishna Consciousness 473 F, Supp. at 312, U.S. 89-1399
18. Our constitution justly puts beyond the prosecutor ideas that some might call mental or spiritual poison. No matter how one might feel personally about Scientology's ideas, of themselves, they are not the real danger. In this case, it is not what they believe but how they are making others believe it that is the real danger. The subtle and "invisible" sophistication of coercive persuasion properly applied, bypasses and even renders the religious version of "caveat emptor," (let the buyer beware) an ineffective social or legal safeguard.
19. If one was to extract the key principles after carefully rereading the book "1984" and then devise a test field experiment in a closed and socially isolated group, the parallels between Scientology, its polices, its actions, and this theoretical field experiment are startling. It could easily be argued that in many ways, besides coercive persuasion technology Hubbard used 1984 as the "paint by the numbers" model for the other control theories utilized in Scientology. This argument is also solidly consistent with the other information in this appendix.