ABC NIGHTLINE: INSIDE SCIENTOLOGY -- ILLUSTRATED INTERVIEW
[Martin Bashir] Has the e-meter ever been subjected to randomized clinical trials to assess its efficacy.
[Tommy Davis] I have no idea. I don't know why it would be.
It works in Scientology, and that's what people use it in. I don't know why it would be subjected to random clinical trials. It's been tested and used repeatedly and extensively --
[Martin Bashir] -- a mechanism for therapeutic care. You just said --
[Tommy Davis] -- in a religion.
[Martin Bashir] But has it ever been tested objectively is what I'm asking?
[Tommy Davis] I mean, it gets used every day by Scientology counselors.
[Martin Bashir] I'm not asking that. I'm asking --
[Tommy Davis] To my knowledge, no. And as far as evidence of the e-meter, and its efficacy, the evidence of that is in those Scientologists who have used it to great benefit.
And as far as the Church of Scientology is concerned, it's the only evidence that matters is the people and the results. *
[Martin Bashir] From the start, L. Ron Hubbard set out to attract celebrities, believing high profile public figures would be its most effective evangelists.
Q. Can you recall any celebrities who came into the center when you were there?
[Amy Scobee] I met John Travolta, Kelly Preston, Priscilla Presley, Lisa Marie, Edgar Winter, Isaac Hayes, Tom Cruise.
[Martin Bashir] After Hubbard died in 1986 --
David Miscavige became the Church's leader --
and soon embraced Tom Cruise with great fervor.
Q. But I guess it's helpful, isn't it, if you are an organization with an individual as well known, as famous, as successful as Tom Cruise?
[Tommy Davis] Sure! Of course!
[Martin Bashir] He's a good advocate?
[Tommy Davis] Well, look. I think anybody who would complain about having successful, well-known, happy people being members of their group --
[Martin Bashir] John Travolta, Kirstie Alley --
[Tommy Davis] -- I think you would be crazy to complain about that.
[Martin Bashir] Hines said he helped prepare for the arrival of the Church's most celebrated new member --
who decided to fully commit to Scientology by staying at the International Base in California
for a few months of services.
[Bruce Hines] I was part of the preparations where David Miscavige brought Tom Cruise to the International headquarters.
[Martin Bashir] And Hines says, "Nothing was to be spared."
[Bruce Hines] He had the very best auditors and the very best people looking after him. Just the best treatment that anyone could possibly get, so that he got a favorable impression of Scientology.
L. Ron Hubbard, writing in a science fiction magazine in the 1940's, first advanced the extravagant false claims that various physical and mental illnesses could be cured by auditing. He played a major part in developing Scientology. Thereafter, commencing in the early 1950's numerous Scientology [**3] books and pamphlets were written explaining how various illnesses can be and had been cured through auditing. These materials were widely distributed. Hubbard, who wrote much of the material, is a facile, prolific author and his quackery flourished throughout the United States and in various parts of the world. He was supported by other pamphleteers and adherents who also promoted the practice of Scientology and touted its alleged benefits.
Hubbard and his fellow Scientologists developed the notion of using an E-meter to aid auditing. Substantial fees were charged for the meter and for auditing sessions using the meter. They repeatedly and explicitly represented that such auditing effectuated cures of many physical and mental illnesses. An individual processed with the aid of the E-meter was said to reach the intended goal of "clear" and was led to believe there was reliable scientific proof that once cleared many, indeed most illnesses would automatically be cured. Auditing was guaranteed to be successful. All this was and is false -- in short, a fraud. Contrary to representations made, there is absolutely no scientific or medical basis in fact for the claimed cures attributed [**4] to E-meter auditing.
[T]he Church and others who base their use upon religious belief will be allowed to continue auditing practices upon specified conditions which allow the Food and Drug Administration as little discretion as possible to interfere in future activities of the religion. Pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 334 (d), upon the findings and conclusions contained in this Memorandum Opinion, relief in the following form shall be set out in an implementing order:
All E-meters are condemned
together with all writings seized. The Government shall have its costs.
The device may be used or sold or distributed only for use in bona fide religious counseling. No user, purchaser or distributee (other than the Founding Church of Scientology or an ordained practicing minister of the Church) shall be considered engaged in bona fide religious counseling unless and until such user, purchaser or distributee has filed an affidavit with the Secretary of the Food and Drug Administration stating the basis on which a claim of bona fide religious counseling is made, together with an undertaking to comply with all conditions of the judgment so long as the E-meter is used.
The device should bear a prominent, clearly visible notice warning that any person using it for auditing or counseling of any kind is forbidden by law to represent that there is any medical or scientific basis for believing or asserting that the device is useful in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of any disease. It should be noted in the warning that the device has been condemned by a United States District Court for misrepresentation and misbranding under [**21] the Food and Drug laws, that use is permitted only as part of religious activity, and that the E-meter is not medically or scientifically capable of improving the health or bodily functions of anyone.
Each user, purchaser, and distributee of the E-meter shall sign a written statement that he has read such warning and understands its contents and such statements shall be preserved.
Any and all literature which refers to the E-meter or to auditing, including advertisements, distributed directly or indirectly by the seller or distributor of the E-meter or by anyone utilizing or promoting the use of the E-meter, should bear a prominent notice printed in or permanently affixed to each item or such literature, stating that the device known as a Hubbard Electrometer, or E-meter, used in auditing, has been condemned by [*365] a United States District Court on the grounds that the literature of Dianetics and Scientology contains false and misleading claims of a medical or scientific nature and that the E-meter has no proven usefulness in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of any disease, nor is it medically or scientifically capable of improving any bodily function. Where the notice [**22] is printed in or affixed to literature, it should appear either on the outside front cover or on the title page in letters no smaller than 11-point type.
The E-meter should not be sold to any person or used in any counseling of any person except pursuant to a written contract, signed by the purchaser or counselee, which includes, among other things, a prominent notification as specified immediately above.
The effect of this judgment will be to eliminate the E-meter as far as further secular use by Scientologists or others is concerned. E-meter auditing will be permitted only in a religious setting subject to placing explicit warning disclaimers on the meter itself and on all labeling.