A PIECE OF BLUE SKY -- SCIENTOLOGY, DIANETICS & L. RON HUBBARD EXPOSED
CHAPTER THREE: Hubbard the Explorer
By his own account, Hubbard led his first "expedition" while in college. In fact, the "Caribbean Motion Picture Expedition" set out after Hubbard's last semester at college. Dates vary in the Scientology accounts, but the "expedition" actually took place in the summer of 1932.
The "expedition" is mentioned frequently, but briefly in Scientology literature. It allegedly provided the "Hydrographic Office" and the University of Michigan with "invaluable data for the furtherance of their research." Hubbard's Church supports these claims with copies of the George Washington newspaper, The University Hatchet, of May 1932, and the Washington Daily News of September 13, 1932. As ever, the documents support only the basis of Hubbard's story, and completely undermine his inflated claims.
The University Hatchet article preceded the trip, and was enthusiastic about its possible outcome. The headline reads: "L. Ron Hubbard Heads Movie Cruise Among Old American Piratical Haunts," and the article gives considerable detail about the personnel and the objectives of the "expedition." The equipment was to include a light seaplane. Cameras were to be supplied by the University of Michigan. Among the personnel were to be "botanists, biologists and entomologists."
The article continues: "Buccaneers, however, will have the center of the stage. According to Hubbard, the strongholds and bivouacs of the Spanish Main have lain neglected and forgotten for centuries, and there has never been a concerted attempt to tear apart the jungles to find the castles of Teach, Morgan, Bonnet, Bluebeard, Kidd, Sharp, Ringrose and L'Ollanais, to name a few."
Apparently Hubbard and crew intended to make "motion pictures" for Fox Movietone News: "Down there where the sun is whipping heat waves from the palms, this crew of gentlemen rovers will re-enact the scenes which struck terror to the hearts of the world only a few hundred years ago - with the difference that this time it will be for the benefit of the fun and the flickering ribbon of celluloid .... Scenarios will be written on the spot in accordance with the legends of the particular island, and after a thorough research through the ship's library which is to include many authoritative books on pirates." Hubbard had become one of the eight Associate Editors of The University Hatchet with this issue, so quite possibly he wrote the piece. The style certainly fits.
The voyage took place aboard a 1,000 ton sailing ship, the Doris Hamlin, captained by F.E. Garfield. Fifty students were to take part, and the Hatchet article gives an impressive list of proposed ports of call.
However, the "expedition" failed to realize its promise. On his return to the U.S., Hubbard wrote an article for the Washington Daily News:
The Doris Hamlin called at Ponce, Puerto Rico, then, on the insistence of its owners, returned to Baltimore. No mention was made of any underwater filming, despite the Scientologists' claim that films made provided the Hydrographic Office and the University of Michigan with "invaluable data." The University of Michigan told Shannon they had no film, and knew nothing of the expedition. Nor is there any mention of the buccaneer film, which was to have been the core of the "expedition." The seaplane, mentioned in the article written before the trip began, has also disappeared in Hubbard's account. The Doris Hamlin failed to reach all but three of its sixteen proposed destinations.
A few years later, Hubbard wrote of the "Caribbean Motion Picture Expedition": "It was a crazy idea at best, and I knew it, but I went ahead anyway, chartered a four-masted schooner and embarked with some fifty luckless souls who haven't stopped their cursings yet." 1
The Captain of the Doris Hamlin, who had thirty years of seagoing experience, summed up by saying that it had been "the worst trip I ever made." In an interview published in 1950, Hubbard was quoted as saying "it was a two-bit expedition and a financial bust.'' 2
Undeterred, Hubbard undertook his next "expedition" at the end of 1932. In his Mission into Time we read: "Then in 1932, the true mark of an exceptional explorer was demonstrated. In that year L. Ron Hubbard, aged twenty-one, achieved an ambitious 'first.' Conducting the West Indies Minerals Survey, he made the first complete mineralogical survey of Puerto Rico. This was pioneer exploration in the great tradition, opening up a predictable, accurate body of data for the benefit of others. Later, in other, less materialistic fields, this was to be his way many, many times over."
The Scientologists supply a survey report for manganese, dated January 20, 1933, and signed "L. Ron Hubbard." There is also a letter dated February 16, 1933, headed ' 'West Indies Minerals, Washington, D.C." The letter's author says he was accompanied on a survey by L. Ron Hubbard. Attached to the letter is a crude map entitled "La Plata Mine Assays," and signed with the "LRH" monogram familiar to Scientologists.
As ever, Shannon explored more deeply. He found that a Bela Hubbard had made a survey of the Lares district of Puerto Rico in 1923, but the Puerto Rican Department of Natural Resources, the U.S. Geological Survey, and a professor at the University of Puerto Rico, who had prepared the Geology of Puerto Rico in 1932-1933, had no knowledge of L. Ron Hubbard.
Armstrong says Hubbard had gone to Puerto Rico to prospect for gold (right). 3 This is supported by a photograph in Hubbard's Mission into Time, with the caption, in his hand, "Sluicing with crews on Corozal River '32." It is possible that Ron fled to Puerto Rico to avoid the legal claims brought against him by members of his Caribbean "expedition." 4
Long before Scientology, Hubbard told stories about an expedition to South America. Frank Gruber, who knew him in 1934, said Hubbard told him about a four-year expedition to the Amazon. After the War, Hubbard told a fellow writer he had been wounded by native arrows on this supposed expedition. 5 By the time Dianetics came along, this tall story had faded away, to be replaced with others. There is one Scientology biographical sketch which makes a fleeting mention of an "expedition" to Central America, made immediately on his departure from college.
Hubbard also claimed to have been a barnstorming pilot (nicknamed "Flash"). Shannon found that for two years Hubbard had a license for gliders, but none for powered aircraft. The barnstorming career seems to have been another student vacation, taken in the summer of 1931 with a friend who was an experienced pilot.
The Scientologists, in a 1989 publication called Ron the Writer, claim that having left college Hubbard "went straight into the world of fiction writing and before two months were over had established himself in that field at a pay level which, for those times, was astronomical." Apart from a few contributions to The University Hatchet Literary Review, Hubbard's only commercially published article while at the University was for the Sportsman Pilot. It was called "Tailwind Willies," and was published in January 1932, and it probably earned little or nothing.
During 1932 and 1933, Hubbard contributed five articles to the Sportsman Pilot, including one entitled "Music with Your Navigation," and one to the Washington Star Supplement, called "Navy Pets." That was his entire commercial output during those years; hardly enough to support himself, let alone produce an "astronomical" level of pay.
It was not until 1934 that Hubbard's stories were accepted by pulp magazines such as Thrilling Adventure, The Phantom Detective, and Five Novels Monthly. His later denials of having written pulp wear thin given some of the titles in question: "Sea Fangs," "The Carnival of Death," "Man-Killers of the Air," and "The Squad that Never Came Back." Hubbard later wrote Western Fiction too.
The Church usually makes no mention of Ron's first two marriages. Upon his return from Puerto Rico, Hubbard married Margaret Louise Grubb, in Elkton, Maryland, on April 13, 1933. He called her "Polly," or "Skipper," and she called him "Redhead." The first child, "Nibs," or more properly Lafayette Ronald Hubbard, Jr., was born prematurely in May 1934. In 1936, Polly bore Hubbard a daughter, Catherine May.
Summer 1934 found Hubbard living in a hotel in New York, where he met Frank Gruber, also an aspiring pulp writer. They spent a lot of time together, and in his book, The Pulp Jungle, Gruber told this story:
Hubbard was actually twenty-three. Gruber had been taking notes throughout:
Gruber added: "I will say this, his extremely vivid imagination earned him a fortune, some years later."
His Church claims that Hubbard moved to Hollywood in 1935, 1936 or 1937 (depending on which account you read), and while there wrote many major films. Shortly after Gerald Armstrong started working on the Hubbard biographical Archive, he was told that the film Dive Bomber, a 1941 Warner Brothers film release, allegedly written by Hubbard, was to be shown to raise money for the legal defense of eleven indicted Scientology staff members. Armstrong started researching the background of the film in February 1980.
Armstrong was in a quandary: "It would have been embarrassing if someone had said, 'where is your name' and his name wasn't on it. People had paid money. So I thought perhaps I could come up with something else that could be a substitute .... I wrote to Mr. Hubbard and let him know what I had found to date . . . he didn't answer me. But he sent down a dispatch." 6
Hubbard's dispatch, dated February 11, 1980, was sent to the organizer of the showing. It was read into the court record, in the Armstrong case. 7 Hubbard claimed that Warner Brothers had forgotten to put his name on the movie, and had paid him after distribution. He had not cashed the check until the end of the war, when he used the money for a trip to the Caribbean.
Hubbard's most noteworthy work during his brief time in Hollywood was the co-authorship of a 15 part serial called The Secret of Treasure Island. He was, however, a successful pulp writer. Many of his stories were published during the 1930s. Among his pseudonyms were Rene Lafayette, Legionnaire 148, Lieutenant Scott Morgan, Morgan de Wolf, Michael de Wolf, Michael Keith, Kurt von Rachen, Captain Charles Gordon, Legionnaire 14830, Elron, Bernard Hubbel, Captain B.A. Northrup, Joe Blitz and Winchester Remington Colt.
Only his remarkable writing output enabled Hubbard to make a living in those "penny-a-word" days. He wrote a number of "true stories," two of which concerned his alleged experiences in the French Foreign Legion. His first hard-covered book, Buckskin Brigades, was published in 1937.
According to Hubbard, his first philosophical breakthrough came in 1938, with the discovery that the primary law of all existence is "Survive!" The notion that everything that exists is trying to survive became the basis of Dianetics and Scientology.
In 1938, Hubbard detailed his supposed insights in a book called Excalibur. Hubbard's hints about Excalibur are the source of several Scientology myths. It is whispered that the entirety of Scientology was available in the book, but in such a concentrated form that many people would have gone mad had they read it. Indeed, in an early Scientology promotional piece, it was claimed that fifteen copies of Excalibur were distributed, but four of the people who read the book went mad as a result, so the manuscript was withdrawn. The book has never been published.
Gerald Armstrong found three different manuscripts of Excalibur among Hubbard's personal effects, one of which was between 300 and 400 pages long. 8 Later, someone who had seen a version of Excalibur said it was so "dangerous" he would "willingly let his four-year-old daughter read it."
Writer A.E. van Vogt, an important figure in the early Dianetic movement, has said that Hubbard claimed his heart had stopped for six minutes during an operation, in 1938. Excalibur was the result of the revelation Hubbard had during this near death experience. Armstrong has said it was a dental extraction under nitrous oxide. Hubbard told his literary agent that a "smorgasbord" of knowledge had been laid out before him. He had absorbed it all, and managed to avoid the command to forget, which was the last part of the incident. Excalibur is an expansion of Hubbard's argument that "Survive!" is the basic law of existence. Hubbard's friend and fellow writer, Arthur Burks, saw the book when it was offered to publishers in New York in the summer of 1938. He was impressed, but could not manage to instill his enthusiasm into a publisher. Burks later hinted that he put up money for the book to be published, but that Hubbard returned to Port Orchard in the autumn, dejected that he had failed to find a proper publisher, taking Burks' money with him. 9
Hubbard often claimed that the only people who understood the value of his research in 1938 were the Russians. In an interview given in 1964, he said that the Russians had offered him $100,000 and laboratory facilities he needed in the USSR, so that he could complete his work. After Hubbard refused, a copy of Excalibur was stolen from his hotel room in Miami. Hubbard made no mention of these supposed events when complaining to the FBI about approaches from the Russians in 1951. 10
In 1938, Hubbard became a science fiction writer, claiming he was "summoned" by the publishing firm of Street & Smith to write for Astounding Science Fiction. Hubbard protested that he wrote about people, not machines, and was told that this was precisely what was needed.
Hubbard joined editor John Campbell's circle of friends, and became a major contributor to the reshaping of science fiction which Campbell brought about. Campbell was also to figure in the birth of Dianetics, twelve years later. Recently this pre-war period has been dubbed the Golden Age of Science Fiction. Hubbard's work appeared alongside that of Robert Heinlein, A.E. van Vogt, and Isaac Asimov, each of whom has stated his admiration for Hubbard's stories. Although Hubbard's writing was patchy in places, he certainly had a very inventive imagination. He became a regular contributor to Astounding, moving back to New York in the autumn of 1939.
Hubbard's interest in the occult continued, and for six months in 1940 he belonged to the Ancient and Mystical Order Rosae Crucis (AMORC). He completed the first two "neophyte" degrees (probably by mail) before his membership lapsed on July 5, 1940. 11
In February 1940, Hubbard was accepted as a member of the Explorers' Club of New York (though one Scientology account says 1936). According to his book Mission into Time, Hubbard was awarded the Explorers' Club Flag in May 1940, for an expedition to Alaska aboard his ketch, the Magician. Hubbard called this trip the "Alaskan Radio Experimental Expedition." Another Scientology account claims the expedition was undertaken for the U.S. Government.
Hubbard seems to have been trying out a new system of radio navigation developed by the Cape Cod Instrument Company. At least the Scientologists provide documentation to that effect. The "expedition" seems to have consisted of Hubbard and his first wife, Polly, aboard the 32-foot Magician (right). Some film was sent gratuitously to the U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office. As ever, we are faced with a germ of truth embedded in Hubbard's exaggeration. The habit of a lifetime.
In a letter sent to the Seattle Star in November 1940, Hubbard complained that his Alaskan trip had been greatly delayed by frequent failures of the boat's motor. Repairs had been expensive, and Hubbard and his wife were stranded in Ketchikan while he tried to write and sell enough stories to bail them out. Eventually he borrowed $265 from the Bank of Alaska, a debt he blithely forgot as soon he departed. 12
Hubbard was apparently an accomplished sailor, receiving a License to Master of Steam and Motor Vessels in December 1940, and a License to Master of Sail Vessels (any Ocean), in May 1941.
In 1938, Hubbard had failed to secure a place in the Air Corps, and in 1939 the U.S. War Department turned him down. By the spring of 1941, Hubbard was living in New York, and waging an all-out campaign for a commission in the U.S. Naval Reserve with assignment to intelligence duties.
Hubbard pursued this objective by coaxing his friends to write letters of reference to the U.S. Navy. 13 In March, Jimmy Britton of KGBU radio in Alaska wrote to the Secretary of the Navy, claiming that during a "ten month" stay in Alaska, Hubbard had been "instrumental in bringing to justice a German saboteur who had devised it to be in his power to cut off Alaska from communication with the U.S. in time of war." Hubbard does not seem to have mentioned this episode himself, but it is highly likely that Britton heard the story from Hubbard. Hubbard, in a letter to the Seattle Star written in 1940, said he had been in Alaska from July to November. Britton said Hubbard had spent ten months in Alaska.
There was a letter from Commander W.E. McCain, of the U.S. Navy which stated: "I have found him to be of excellent character, honest, ambitious and always very anxious to improve himself, to better himself and become a more useful citizen." A letter written in April 1941, by Warren Magnuson of the House of Representatives to President Roosevelt, said: "An interesting trait is his distaste for personal publicity. He is both discreet and resourceful as his record should indicate."
One letter, allegedly from a professor at George Washington University, explained that Hubbard' s "average grades in engineering were due to the obvious fact that he had started in the wrong career. They do not reflect his great ability."
In May came a letter from Robert Ford, also of the House of Representatives, who recommended Hubbard as, "one of the most brilliant men I have ever known . . . discreet, loyal, honest." Ford says that he and Hubbard were close friends at the time, and admits that he probably gave Hubbard some of his note-paper and told him to write whatever he liked. 14
Lastly, a letter from the editor of Astounding Science Fiction, John Campbell, who confined himself mainly to praise of Hubbard's ability to turn in a story on time, but added: "In personal relationships, I have the highest opinion of him as a thoroughly American gentleman."
Hubbard stepped up his campaign after he was rejected by the U.S. Navy Reserve in April. His eyesight was inadequate. However, with the expansion of the armed forces due to the growing U.S. commitment to the European war, Hubbard's poor eyesight was waived, and he achieved his goal. In July 1941, five months before the attack on Pearl Harbor, the U.S. Navy finally yielded to Hubbard's entreaties, and gave him a commission in the Reserve.
Additional sources: Hubbard, Mission into Time (American St Hill Organization, 1973); Flag Divisional Directive 69RA, ""Facts About L. Ron Hubbard Things You Should Know," 8 March 1974, revised 7 April 1974; FSM magazine 1; A Report to Members of Parliament on Scientology (Worldwide PR Bureau, Church of Scientology, 1968); Hubbard's college grade sheets; The University Hatchet; Washington Daily News, 13 September 1932; Gruber, The Pulp Jungle; Flag Divisional Directive 69RA, ""Facts About L. Ron Hubbard Things You Should Know," 8 March 1974, revised 7 April 1974; "L. Ron Hubbard," by the LRH Public Affairs Bureau, Church of Scientology of California, 1981; Motion Picture Herald, 23 January 1937; Hubbard, Battlefield Earth, p. viii; Rocky Mountain News, 20 February 1983
1. Adventure, 1935.
2. Look magazine, 5 December 1950.
3. Vol. 12, p.1972 of transcript of Church of Scientology of California vs. Gerald Armstrong, Superior Court for the County of Los Angeles, case no. C 420153.
4. Vol. 11, p.1867-8 of transcript of ibid.
5. Alva Rogers, Darkhouse
6. Vol. 10, p.1577 of transcript of ibid.
7. Vol. 10, pp.1581-3 of transcript of ibid.
8. Vol. 15, pp.2423-4 of transcript of ibid.
9. Dianetic Auditors Bulletin III, no. 1; Aberree, December 1961.
10. Exhibit 500-6J, Church of Scientology of California vs. Gerald Armstrong, Superior Court for the County of Los Angeles, case no. C 420153; Hubbard letter to FBI, May 1951.
11. Letter to the author from AMORC, 1984.
12. Exhibit 500-3H, ibid.
13. Letters from Hubbard naval record.
14. Russell Miller interview with Robert Macdonald Ford, Olympia, Washington, 1 September 1986.