THE COVERT WAR AGAINST ROCK -- CHAPTER 3
Parapolitical Stars in the Dope Show
BOOKS WERE BANNED,
BOOK SHOPS CLOSED DOWN. OFFICES AND SOCIAL CENTRES
The nation entered a mode of heightened security after the appearance of alien youth that grew its hair long and balked at the idea of hurling itself into the Asian inferno. This was the summer of the Denver Pop Festival at Mile High Stadium, featuring Jimi Hendrix, Joe Cocker, the Mothers of Invention and Credence Clearwater Revival, among other emerging acts. The festival was marred by slugfests between club-swinging cops, gatecrashers, and-foreshadowing the hellish landscape of Altamont-bikers hired to maintain security. Thousands in the stadium were forced onto the field when tear gas wafted through the stands, a police response to bottle-throwing gate-crashers. The next day, the police arrived armed to the molars. Some 300 cops with police dogs assembled at the foot of a hill where a group of non-paying long-hairs sat listening to "free music." The police brought along a weapon called the "Pepper Fog," a device that pumped plumes of tear gas and scalding mace. They were also armed with high-caliber rifles loaded with bird shot.
The mood of the crowd was idyllic. Nevertheless, the authorities cranked up the Pepper Fog machine, and its loud motor attracted the attention of some concert-goers who wandered down the hill to investigate. A single watermelon rind flung by a young rocker or provocateur arced into the platoon of cops. Immediately, the rind toss was addressed by a huge cloud of choking and blistering Pepper Fog. Everyone on the hill swallowed the gas.
Police clubbed anyone caught scaling the fence to crash the concert, even women, into a sorry state of submission. To force a mass confrontation, the men in blue marched into the stadium with their rifles raised -- but there was no show of resistance from the crowd. After the event, the Denver police chief mislaid blame for the violence on the American Liberation Front, a group of anti-war activists who had recently held a "live-in" at City Park to demonstrate that "revolution through music is possible." 
A clandestine counter revolt was waged by the intelligence agencies and their allies in the corporate sector. Former FBI agent Paul Rothermeil told reporter Peter Noyes that he had been asked by Texas Millionaire Nelson Bunker Hunt (his father, bombastic ultra-conservative H.L Hunt, was a suspect in the killing of John Kennedy; Nelson himself was at one time among the world's wealthiest men, the sole title-holder to all of the oil reserves in Libya) to form a "killer force" in Southern California to prey on liberal organizations and peace activists. Hunt's death squads would recruit from the John Birch Society (a fascist front that received generous financial support from the Texan) and train in the desert. The killers were to be armed with exotic "gas guns" manufactured in Europe. These beauties induced heart attacks that deceived any coroner. Rothermeil refused the offer, and shortly thereafter discovered that his telephone had been tapped by the millionaire's private security force. 
LSD appeared on the streets as if on cue to destabilize student dissent. More potent drugs used in federally-sponsored behavior modification studies also found their way to society at large. STP, a hallucinogen developed by the Dow Chemical Company in 1964, was considered an "incapacitating agent" by scientists on the CIA payroll. Research subjects were rendered semi-comatose for several days after dropping the hallucinogen. In 1967, Lee and Shlain report in Acid Dreams, "for some inexplicable reason, the formuIa for STP was released to the scientific community at large."
Five thousand tablets of STP were distributed in Haight-Ashbury as the "Summer of Love" embarked. "Few had heard of the drug, but that didn't matter to the crowd of eager pill poppers. They gobbled the gift as if it were an after-dinner mint." Some of the attendees were still tripping three days later. Emergency wards in San Francisco were choked with freaking bohemians.
Phencylidine, or PCP, an animal tranquilizer sold by Parke-Davis, made its first appearance in San Francisco's bohemian underground, one of many mind-blistering drugs that spilled from the CIA's medicine cabinet into the streets of San Francisco. 
The marketing possibilities were not lost on La Cosa Nostra, of course. The Mob revived its Prohibition role, opened mass production labs and a meticulously organized a network of traffickers to move black market hallucinogens. 
Lee and Shlain ask, "And what was the CIA up to?":
According to a former CIA contract employee, Agency personnel helped underground chemists set up LSD laboratories in the Bay Area during the Summer of Love to "Monitor" events in the acid ghetto. But why, if this assertion is true, would the CIA be interested in keeping tabs on the hippie population? Law enforcement is not a plausible explanation, for there were already enough narcs operating in the Haight. Then what was the motive? A CIA agent who claims to have infiltrated the covert LSD network provided a clue when he referred to Haight-Ashbury as a "human guinea pig farm."
A dozen years earlier in the same city, George Hunter White and his CIA colleagues had set up a safe house and begun testing hallucinogenic drugs on unwitting citizens. White's activities were phased out in the mid-1960s when the grassroots acid scene exploded in the Bay Area. Suddenly there was a neighborhood packed full of young people who were ready and willing to gobble experimental chemicals -- chemicals that had already been tested in the lab but seldom under actual field conditions. 
Charles Manson and Timothy Leary arrived in San Francisco at roughly the same time. Both had a keen interest in mind control. In the labyrinth of Helter Skelter, Vincent Bugliosi observes: "Somewhere along the line -- I wasn't sure how or where or when -- Manson developed a control over his followers so all-encompassing that he would ask them to violate the ultimate taboo -- say 'kill' and they would do it."
In 1993, a book appeared in Germany offering up a partial solution to the Manson mind control mystery, an intimate glimpse of the CIA's activities in the Haight district: Murder's Test-Tube: The Box of Charles Manson, by Carol Greene. A French review found the book's other characters "far more frightening than Manson himself." There was Dr. Wayne O. Evans, director of the Military Stress Laboratory of the US Army Institute of Environmental Medicine in Natick, Massachusetts in the 1960s. Evans took part in the Study Group for the Effects of Psychotropic Drugs on Normal Humans, a conference held in Puerto Rico in 1967, and issued a report, Psychotropic Drugs in the Year 2000.
In considering the present volume, it is our hope that the reader will not believe this to be an exercise in science fiction. It is well known that the world of 15 years hence presently exists in the research laboratory of today.
When we consider the effects of these advances in pharmacology we must ask:
A. TO WHOM DO THE YOUTH LISTEN?
B. WHAT ARE THEIR SOCIAL AND PERSONAL WORTH?
Evans glimpsed shimmering vistas of mass mind control on the horizon. The average citizen might consider military psychopharmacology a morbid subject. "If we accept the position that human mood, motivation, and emotion are reflections of a neurochemical state of the brain, then drugs can provide a simple, rapid expedient means to produce any desired neurochemical state that we wish. The sooner that we cease to confuse scientific and moral statements about drug use, the sooner we can rationally consider the types of neurochemical states that we wish to provide for people." The unstated provider of said "neurochemical states" would, of course, be agents of the federal government.
Consider Charles Manson's contacts in Haight-Ashbury:
Dr. David E. Smith [currently an associate clinical professor of occupational medicine and toxicology at the University of California, San Francisco, and a visiting associate professor of behavioral pharmacology in the department of psychiatry, University of Nevada Medical School] and his colleague Roger Smith (no relation), both of whom were associated with the famous Haight-Ashbury Clinic in San Francisco. They shared an interest in the concept of "behavioral sinks"; believed that rats, in response to overcrowding, were naturally inclined to violence, criminality, and mass murder; and believed that the percentage of rats who would engage in such behavior could be increased by the influence of drugs. Dr. David Smith added a new imension by injecting the rats with amphetamines. Author Greene presents and defends the thesis that for both Smiths, Haight-Ashbury represented an opportunity to test these theories [on humans]. David Smith referred to Haight-Ashbury as the national center for habitual drug abuse, and the first slum for teenagers in America. Both Smiths were personally acquainted with Manson, and Roger Smith was Manson's parole officer when Manson first came to Haight-Ashbury, direct from prison. 
"No doubt about it," Lee and Shlain conclude, "LSD was a devastating weapon." 
And that's exactly how officials of the CIA saw it. Allen Dulles wrote in a memo to the Secretary of Defense in 1955 that Langley took an interest in hallucinogens in the first place due to "the enthusiasm and foresight"of Dr L. Wilson Greene, technical director of the chemical and radiological labs at the Army Chemical Center. Greene was the author of a 1949 paper, Psychochemical Warfare: A New Concept of War, a bit of Orwellian inspiration for CIA and Army officials who have cited the report as their inspiration in the study of drugs as military ordnance.
Dulles reported in his memo that the Agency was testing hallucinogens on "groups of people" or "individuals engaged in group activities." 
The list of groups susceptible to drugging did not exclude the Nixon administration. UCLA's Sidney Gottlieb testified in September, 1977 that once, when Nixon visited a foreign country, his traveling party was secretly drugged by the CIA.  ABC News later reported that the incident took place during Nixon's sojourn to the Soviet Union in May, 1972. 
At the dawn of the counter culture, CIA personnel mingled with drug dealers in San Francisco's swelling hippie district. Scientists with Agency credentials moved to the Haight and set up "monitoring" stations, among them Louis J. West of UCLA, formerly Jack Ruby's psychiatrist. (Dr. West testified that Ruby had an epileptic fit and accidentally shot Lee Harvey Oswald as a result of his involuntary twitchings). West also went on to the chair of UCLA's Neuropsychiatric Institute and oversaw the illicit mind control experiments of Drs. Jose Delgado, author of Physical Control of the Mind (1969), and Ross Adey, a veteran of Operation Paperclip. Dr. Margaret Singer, currently an advisory board member of the CIA-anchored "False Memory Syndrome Foundation," also participated in the study of LSD as a politically-destabilizing weapon.
Pete Townshend, guitar thrasher for The Who, was one of the few popular musicians who shunned the drug, found it politically and spiritually useless. He let that particular bandwagon roll by. "When you trip, you love yourself. You don't realize you were better off as you were," he said. "The trips are just a side street, and before you know it you're back where you were. Each trip is more disturbing than the one that follows until eventually the side street becomes a dead end. Not only spiritually, which is the most important, but it can actually stop you thinking." Townsend tried a hit of LSD given to him by Berkeley chemist Owsley Stanley III at the Monterey Pop Festival in June, 1967. It would be 18 years before he gave the drug another try. "It was incredibly powerful," Townshend recalled. "Owsley must have had the most extraordinary liver"  By the time he got to Woodstock, Townshend was completely put off by the CIA's mind control drug. As a "cynical" English culturatum, he "walked through it all and felt like spitting at the lot of them and shaking them, trying to make them realize nothing had changed and nothing was going to change." The alternative society that blossomed In the mid-1960s was already rapidly disintegrating. Townshend blamed Woodstock, "a field full of six-foot-deep mud laced with LSD. If that was the world they wanted to live in, then fuck the lot of them." 
Rock historian Charles Kaiser also considers LSD a weapon, and not a tool of spiritual revelation as the guinea pigs were led to believe. "One CIA memo called the drug a 'potential new agent for unconventional warfare."' Potential? "That was certainly what many people hoped it would be for the swarms of hippies who descended on the Haight in the summer of 1967. Vastly more powerful than marijuana or hash, LSD was the drug that took you, instead of the other way around. In 1966 Leary had founded the League for Spiritual Discovery, explaining, 'Like every great religion of the past, we seek to find the divinity within and to express this revelation in a life of glorification and worship of God' ... But to the disappointment of the left, there never was any direct correlation between drug use (or promiscuity) and politics. This was one aspect of the deeper dichotomy between recreations of the sixties and their political content. Worshiping under the banner of sex, drug, and rock 'n' roll, millions of young Americans smoked marijuana, tripped on acid, sped through the decade on superfluous amphetamines, dressed wildly, danced violently, and seduced one another assiduously. Then in roughly the same proportion as their parents, they continued to vote Republican." 
"Dropping out," ditching the corporate warfare state, was postulated by the emerging leadership of the anti-war subculture. And the philosophical direction of the swelling drop-out class was influenced by metaphysical, counter-cultural spokesmen with CIA support, each talking a blue streak about self, transcendence, consciousness expansion and equally high-minded, apolitical flights of mental expatriation.
On the East Coast, Ira Einhorn, an eclectic new-age quack, and his friend Andrija Puharich, inventor of the tooth implant and a CIA-Army mind control researcher, lectured the counter-culture on drug reveling and "alien" visitations. Among the business sponsors of Ira Einhorn (currently a fugitive living in France, wanted for the alleged murder of his girlfriend Holly Maddox), the Bronfman family of Seagram's fame; Russell Byers, a HUD director; John Haas, president of Rohm and Haas chemical conglomerate; Bill Cashel, Jr., a former Marine and president of Bell Pennsylvania. Einhorn wrote a chapter for a book edited by Humphrey Osmond, the infamous LSD chemist, Tim Leary and Alan Watts. His attorney was Arlen "Magic Bullet" Spector. 
Whole Earth Catalog editor Stewart Brand was the prototypical drop-out ... or was he? Brand was born in 1938, a native of Rockford, Illinois. He attended elite Phillips Exeter Academy, graduated with a degree in biology from Stanford University in 1960. Between 1960 and 1962, Brand was assigned to active duty as a US Army officer. He qualified for Airborne, taught basic infantry and worked as a Pentagon photojournalist. In 1968 he founded the original Whole Earth Catalog, a compendium of tools for alternative living.
"Brand organized one of the key events of the LSD era," writes Benjamin Woolley in Virtual Worlds (1992) -- the 1966 'Trips Festival' in San Francisco. It was to be the grand finale of Ken Kesey's Acid Tests, a blissful "state of collective psychic intimacy that caused individual minds to melt into one single, seamless consciousness." Stewart Brand saw in the Acid Test a glitzy public gathering to rival a rock concert for spectacle. "Hard though it may now be to believe, [he] set about attracting business sponsors. Brand's commercial pragmatism and boy scout enthusiasm resulted in a sort of huge village fete, one that attracted an estimated 10,000 people and perhaps, though this goes unrecorded, a profit. It was so successful that a New York promoter reportedly wanted to book the acid test for Madison Square Garden."
In September 1967, precisely as CHAOS was launched by the CIA and the White House, Dr. Timothy Leary, tossed out of the Army for erratic behavior, abandoned experimenting with LSD on prisoners for the CIA in upstate New York, dropped a reading of the Tibetan Book of the Dead and donned the robes of designated LSD media prelate.
"In addition to this long mainstream tradition of far-out Sufi gnostic experimentation," Leary told religious historian Rick Fields in 1983, "there was another branch of drug research."  While still at Harvard, Leary was approached by Henry Murray, chief of psychological operations for William Donovan's Office of Strategic Services during WWII (and after the war a mind control researcher at Harvard who enlisted as a subject of experimentation one Ted Kaczynski, the Unabomber [19)]. At the 1950 spy trial of Alger Hiss, Murray openly testified: "The whole nature of the functions of OSS were particularly inviting to psychopathic characters; it involved sensation, intrigue, the idea of being a mysterious man with secret knowledge."  And so Leary was fascinated with psychedelic compounds, "like most intelligence men," he added, and volunteered early on for the psilocybin trials, surreptitiously sponsored by the Company.
Kesey and Allen Ginsburg, among many others, first tasted LSD by signing onto Agency-funded research programs.
"Hundreds of Harvard students had been tripped out by answering ads in the Crimson," Leary explained to Smith. "So when I got here, I must tell you, I was the square on the block. We shared these drugs as novices, as amateurs, hesitantly moving into a field that had no signposts or guidelines. There was simply no language in western psychology to describe altered states of consciousness or ecstasies or visions or terrors. The psychiatrists said these were 'psychomimetic' experiences."
Dr. Leary's CIA resume has roots in 1954, with his promotion to director of clinical research and psychology at the Kaiser Foundation Hospital in Oakland, California. At Kaiser, Dr. Leary developed a personality test, "The Leary" -- administered to Leary himself in 1970, in prison  -- adopted by the Agency to test applicants.
Dr. Leary was the bosom ally of Frank Barron, a former grad school classmate and CIA acid head.  Barron was employed by the Berkeley Institute for Personality Assessment and Research -- Leary later admitted that the Institute was "staffed by OSS-CIA psychologists." In 1966, Barron founded the Harvard Psychedelic Drug Research Center. Mark Riebling, a Leary biographer, writes "Leary follows Barron to Harvard and becomes a lecturer in psychology. After Barron administers to him some CIA psilocybin and LSD, Leary begins tripping regularly. He also studies the effects of psychedelics on others in controlled experiments. He later admits to knowing, at the time, that 'some powerful people in Washington have sponsored all this drug research.' In addition to Barron, Leary's associates and assistants during this period include former OSS chief psychologist Murray, who had monitored military experiments on truth-drug brainwashing and interrogation, and Dr Martin Orne, a researcher receiving funds from CIA."  (Orne, with the late Dr. West and Dr. Singer, was a guiding light of the False Memory Syndrome Foundation, an organization that specializes in discrediting ritually-abused, mind-controlled children and their therapists.)
Leary swapped hallucinatory epiphanies with Aldous Huxley, a visiting professor at Harvard University. Huxley convinced Leary to form a "secret society," writes Riebling, "to launch and lead a psychedelic conspiracy to brainwash influential people for the purposes of human betterment. 'That's how everything of culture and beauty and philosophic freedom has been passed on.'" Huxley suggested that he initiated "artists, writers, poets, jazz musicians, elegant courtesans. And they'll educate the intelligent rich."
In 1962, Mary Pinchot Meyer (gunned down on a Potomac towpath, October 12, 1964), divorced from Cord Meyer, her CIA official husband visited Leary at Harvard. "Leary will later recall her as 'amused, arrogant, aristocratic."' Meyer informs Leary that the government is "studying ways to use drugs for warfare, for espionage, for brainwashing." She asks that he "teach us how to run [LSD] sessions, use drugs to do good. Leary agrees. He provides her with drug samples and 'session' reports, and is in touch with her every few weeks, advising her on how to be a 'brainwasher.' She swears him to secrecy." One day after the assassination of John Kennedy, she phoned him, Leary recalled, and she was overcome with fear and grief. "They couldn't control [Kennedy] anymore," she told Leary. "He was learning too much ... They'll cover everything up." 
Leary was a magnet for espionage agents. He was constantly surrounded by operatives of the intelligence agencies. In the end, he paired up with G. Gordon Liddy in a traveling radio road show. Liddy was a CHAOS veteran. 
On September 12, 1970, Tim Leary escaped from prison, aided, according to Benjamin Woolly, "by the Weather Underground ... apparently funded by [CIA runamuck] Ronald Stark and the Brotherhood of Eternal Love." Leary's famed flight to Switzerland was facilitated by CIA contractees. "May 1971," writes Riebling, "Leary and his wife escape to Switzerland with the assistance, according to Leary, of an 'Algerian bureaucrat named Ali,' who 'made no bones about his connection to the CIA ... and [Leary says] 'that's the best mafia you can deal with in the twentieth century."'
The prison escape was financed by the Brotherhood of Eternal Love, and the LSD distributed by the Brotherhood was provided by convicted CIA terrorist Ron Stark. Profits from the sale of the LSD were deposited in Castle Bank, a CIA hot money cooler legally represented by Paul Helliwell, a business promoter for Meyer Lansky and the CIA's chief launderer of heroin proceeds. 
1. Jim Fouratt, "Denver Festival: Mace with Music," Rolling Stone, no 38, July 26, 1969, pp 6-8.
2. Jim Hougan, Spooks: The Haunting of America: The Private Use of Secret Agents, New York, William Morrow, 1978, pp 20, 74-75.
3. Dick Russell, The Man Who Knew Too Much, New York Carroll & Graf/Richard Gallen, 1992, pp. 191, 321.
4. Thomas Powers, The Man Who Kept the Secrets: Richard Helms and the CIA, New York Pocket Books, 1979, pp. 319-20.
5. E. Howard Hunt, Undercover Memoirs of an American Secret Agent, Berkeley, 1974, pp. 211-12.
6. Martin A. Lee & Bruce Shlain, Acid Dreams: The Complete Social History of LSD: The CIA, the Sixties, and Beyond, New York, Grove Weidenfield, 1992, p. 187.
7. Ibid, p. 188 "Hard core Cosa Nostra-type criminal figures [run] an extremely well-organized traffic in hallucinogenic drugs" -- James Finlator, FDA official.
8. Ibid., pp 188-89.20.
9. David E. Smith, M.D. biography, Haight-Ashbury Free Clinic publicity release. Manson was released from prison in March, 1967. Dr. David Smith, according to Vincent Bugliosi in Helter Skelter, "got to know the [Manson] group through his work in the Haight-Ashbury Free Clinic" (p. 222). Before opening the clinic, Smith had lived in the Haight-Ashbury district for 32 years. He was a student at the University of California at San Francisco medical school, specializing in psychopharmacology, the study of the effects of drugs on the mind. Smith is a past president of the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM), in Chevy Chase, Maryland. He was succeeded as president of ASAM in 1995 by Dr. G. Douglas Talbott, M.D., who served three years in the Korean War as an Air Force captain. He was Chief of Medicine at the 275th Hospital, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, a medical aide to both the Secretary and the Chief of Staff of the Air Force. Upon his discharge in 1956, he returned to his hometown of Dayton, Ohio, where he entered private practice. He worked closely with NASA in its nascent Nazi-overrun days, and was a civilian consultant in charge of crew selection for Project Mercury, among other responsibilities The military-industrial connections of Smith and Talbott are among many indications that ASAM is an intelligence front.
10. Lee and Shlain, p. 190.
11. Alan W. Scheflin and Edward M. Opton, Jr., The Mind Manipulators, New York, Paddington Press, 1978, p, 159.
12. lbid, p. 158.
13. Ibid., p. 499.
14. Geoffrey Giuliano, Behind Blue Eyes: The Life of Pete Townshend, New York, Plume Books, 1996, p. 77.
15. Giuliano, p. 91.
16. Charles Kaiser, 1968 in America: Music, Politics, Chaos, Counterculture, and the Shaping of a Generation, New York, Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 1988, pp. 205-06.
17. See Steven Levy, The Unicorn's Secret Murder in the Age of Aquarius, New York: Prentice Hall, 1988.
18. Rick Fields, "Flashback & Fast Forward Psychedelics in the '80s," New Age, July 1983, p. 41.
19. Alexander Cockburn, "We're Reaping Tragic Legacy from Drugs," Los Angeles Times, July 6, 1999, p. B-5. Murray was chairman of Harvard's Department of Social Relations, and, Cockburn notes, "zealously prosecuted the CIA's efforts to carry forward experiments in mind control conducted by Nazi doctors in the concentration camps. Just as Harvard students were fed doses of LSD, psilocybin and other potions, so too were prisoners and many unwitting guinea pigs."
20. R. Harris Smith, OSS: The Secret History of America's First Central Intelligence Agency, Berkeley University of California Press, 1972, p. 7.
21. Lee and Shlain, p. 260.
22. Frank Barron, born in 1922, a psychologist and presumably a philosopher, earned his Ph.D. at Berkeley in 1950. Early in his career, Barron's publications in the field of creativity attracted the interest of the Agency. He was employed for over thirty years at the Berkeley Institute for Personality Assessment and Research, an organization funded and staffed by former OSS-CIA psychologists. On two occasions, Barron rejected offers to become director of psychological personnel for the CIA. Frank Barron biography, Council of Spiritual Practice home page, www.csp.org.
23. Mark Riebling, "Tinker, Tailor, Stoner, Spy," Osprey Productions/Grand Royal web page, 1994.
24. Russell, p. 461.
25. A Nazi link to G. Gordon Liddy foreshadowing his escapades in the Nixon White House. In 1961, Interpol -- a world police force reorganized and Nazified by Heinrich Himmler and J. Edgar Hoover in 1937, with Nazi General Kurt Daluege holding the reins -- was charged by the World Jewish Congress with providing "an unexpected sense of safety" to Nazis in hiding. Vaughn Young, in "The Men from Interpol," describes the events preceding the appearance of G. Gordon Liddy in the Nixon White House. "By 1968, the Nazi issue had quieted sufficiently to allow the election of Paul Dickopf as president. Besides working in Heydrich's SD, where Interpol was located during the war, Dickopf had assisted in rebuilding the police infrastructure in postwar Germany, achieving a senior position for himself in the Bundeskriminalamt. During his four-year reign, the organization achieved a momentary state of financial affluence ..." At the White House, in 1969, events were transpiring that would reach across the ocean five years later. The image of fair and efficient law enforcement, carefully nurtured since Heydrich, was about to fall away. Eugene Rossides, as Interpol's boss in the Treasury Department, moved up the international ladder to follow in Hoover's footsteps. Elected to serve with Dickopf as a vice-president, Rossides was also busy in the U.S. Treasury giving a job to a young man by the name of G. Gordon Liddy."
Leary's tie to a disgraced agent of the FBI is consistent enough -- after his extradition from Switzerland, according to his file, the LSD advocate agreed to inform on the counter-culture for the bureau.
26. See Penny Lernoux, In Banks We Trust, New York: Penguin, 1984. Helliwell, the smack-infested CIA attorney, also snatched up 27,000 acres of prime real estate in Florida on behalf of Walt Disney, the site of Disney World.