PAINFUL DECEPTIONS -- AN ANALYSIS OF THE SEPTEMBER 11TH ATTACK -- PART 4: TECHNICAL INFORMATION TRANSCRIPT
by Eric Hufschmid
Part 4: Technical Information; Flight 77
[Transcribed from the movie by Tara Carreon, The Ralph Nader Library Librarian]
The engines of commercial jets are referred to as turbofans. A turbofan is similar to the electric fans that cool computers. These type of fans have a shroud to control the flow of air. The two main components of an electric fan are the fan blades and the electric motor. Electric fans do not produce white exhaust trails, even if they are on fire. The smoke is likely to be dark, not white.
A turbofan is similar to an electric fan except that the fan is driven by a gas turbine engine instead of an electric motor. A small amount of air from the fan is used by the turbine, but most of it flows around the turbine. Fuel is sprayed in a combustion chamber and the hot, high pressure gas rotates the turbine as it shoots out the rear.
This is the rear of a turbofan. The cool air flows around the engine. The turbine exhaust flows from the smaller, tapered section. Most of the exhaust is pure, cool air. Only a small amount of air passes through the combustion chamber, so only the center of the exhaust could have a different visual appearance from the outside air. The most likely color of the exhaust is a light brown due to soot and pollutants. Even if you look directly into the rear of the engines, you cannot see any white exhaust. During takeoff, the engines are burning a lot of fuel. But even then, the exhaust of a properly maintained turbofan is difficult to see.
Rocket exhaust is so hot it glows white as it leaves the engine. It cools into white clouds, sometimes with a brownish tint. What are these white clouds made of? And why do rockets produce these white clouds but not airplanes? The exhaust is white because one-third of it is steam. This extreme concentration of steam rapidly condenses into tiny droplets of hot water, which appears to our eyes as white clouds. You can see this effect with a tea kettle. The white plume that comes from a tea kettle is steam.
Forest fires also produce extremely visible smoke. This is partly due to steam, but these fires also create a lot of ash and partially burned hydrocarbons. The ash consists of small particles of non-flammable materials.
Volcanoes also produce extremely visible smoke, mainly because of steam and ash. However, in this case the ash is powdered rock.
Why do missiles produce so much steam? Because they carry their own oxygen, rather than use the air. The air is mostly nitrogen, and the nitrogen dilutes the steam. By not having atmospheric nitrogen in the exhaust, the exhaust has a much higher concentration of steam. A turbofan produces steam, just like missiles. So why doesn't the exhaust from a turbofan appear white? Because the nitrogen from the air dilutes the steam so much that droplets don't form.
Actually, under certain conditions, the exhaust of a turbofan is white. At high elevations, the air is below freezing, and it's often saturated with water vapor. Any additional water vapor will form ice crystals. This causes the engines to leave trails of ice crystals. Since these trails form only under special conditions, a plane flying at a slightly different elevation or location may not leave a trail. However, turbofans don't leave trails on warm days, such as that morning of September 11th. Only missiles have enough steam in their exhaust to leave a trail of water droplets at ground level and in hot weather. So, how could this trail be from Flight 77?
The white trail in the Pentagon security video is certainly the exhaust of a missile, not a passenger airplane. Only conspiracy nuts, and people who do not know much about turbofans would insist that Flight 77 created that white trail. The only sensible issue to debate is who fired the missile? The CIA? The U.S. Military? And was the missile fired from a drone, such as a global hawk? Or was it fired from a truck on the Pentagon property? Or was it a shoulder mounted missile?
Do you still believe Flight 77 hit the Pentagon? If so, take a look at the frame of video that shows the fireball from the airplane crash. The Pentagon is 77 feet tall, so this fireball is perhaps 150 feet tall. Some important aspects of this fireball are:
It is gigantic
To understand the significance of this fireball, you need an understanding of the difference between the burning of a hydrocarbon fuel and the detonation of an explosive.
Candle wax is a hydrocarbon, just like gasoline, but candle wax consists of larger molecules. In the center of the flame is vaporized wax. At the edge of the flame, the hydrocarbons combine with oxygen in the air. This is the area of the flame that is bright and hot. An important aspect of candle flames and all other hydrocarbons that burn in air, is that the flame does not expand. It constantly changes shape due to the breeze and the air currents created by its heat, but it remains the same size. The only way that the flame could become larger is if more fuel starts to burn.
Another characteristic of hydrocarbons that burn in air, is that the flame is always less than 1,800 degrees fahrenheit. The significance of this will become more apparent when I discuss the collapse of the buildings in the World Trade Center.
Now let's look at how a fireball develops from an airplane crash. When an airplane crashes, some of the fuel splatters into the air and quickly vaporizes. This creates an explosive mixture of fuel and air. When this mixture ignites, the flame rapidly travels through it. This creates a blast that resembles a low-power explosive. However, the oxygen in this mixture is quickly consumed so this initial blast is very brief. Once the oxygen is gone, the fireball resembles a candle flame, because the fuel is burning only along the outside. As with candle flames, the fireball changes its shape and rises upward, but it does not expand. The size of the fireball is determined by the distance the fuel splattered, and the initial blast.
The fireball at the South Tower was enormous because a lot of fuel splattered into a large area. However, once it formed, it did not expand by much. Rather, it rose upward while being pushed southeast by the breeze. Also, it was orange and full of soot. Candle flames are normally clean by comparison because they are small and indoors, so nothing interferes with the mixing of oxygen and fuel. However, large candle flames can produce enough heat to create their own turbulence, thereby causing soot.
This is a controlled fire for a training exercise. As with real fires that develop from airplane crashes, the flames are orange and they drift aimlessly rather than expand. The fireball that developed at the Pentagon should resemble the fireballs at the World Trade Center and other airplane crashes.
The upper image is from the Pentagon Security camera. In the lower image, I superimposed the fireball from the South Tower. The Pentagon camera shows a fireball that is almost white and free of soot. Whereas photos of all airplane and automobile accidents show orange flames and lots of soot. It's possible that the camera overexposed the image causing it to appear white; however, we should not dismiss the possibility that the brightness of this fireball is because there is oxygen within it. A bright fireball is characteristic of explosives.
Explosives are a mixture of fuel and oxygen. Thousands of years ago, the Chinese discovered that a mixture of charcoal, sulphur and potassium nitrate burns at a rapid rate. Sulphur and charcoal are the fuel and potassium nitrate provides the oxygen. The Chinese used this mixture for fireworks. Eventually, it was also used as gunpowder and bombs. Potassium nitrate is a fertilizer. Our ancestors found it in caves. It's produced by bacteria as they decompose organic material. Sulphur can be found near volcanoes. This mixture is still used in fuses and fireworks. But the military has switched to a more destructive explosive in which oxygen is attached directly to the hydrocarbon molecule. Nitroglycerin and TNT are examples.
A slightly more powerful explosive that is wide used today is RDX. Three carbon atoms are held together by three nitrogen atoms. Two hydrogen atoms are attached to each carbon. Attached to that molecule, are three more nitrogens, each of which has two oxygens. Nitrogen does not hold carbon or oxygen very tightly. Rather, the nitrogen is analogous to rubber bands that are on the verge of breaking. When RDX ignites, the nitrogen loses its grip on the carbon and oxygen and the molecule shatters. The oxygen, carbon and hydrogen then combine producing heat and high pressure gas in the process. The molecule next to it then shatters, starting a chain reaction that travels through the material at about 18,000 miles per hour. RDX detonates so quickly that it explodes even without being confined to a container. The military takes advantage of this by mixing powdered RDX with about 10% of a rubbery material to create a plastic explosive known as C4. The rubber allows RDX to be molded easily and it makes it safer to handle because RDX is poisonous. However, the rubber reduces the explosive power.
In a candle flame, the hydrocarbons must get oxygen from the air, and that process takes time. But adding oxygen to the hydrocarbons allows the material to burn at a rapid rate. It is this addition of oxygen to the hydrocarbons, that transforms hydrocarbons into an explosive. The most important characteristic of explosives, is that they create an incredibly high pressure gas. Calculations show the pressures are as high as millions of pounds per square inch. This pressure causes the gas to expand outward at supersonic speed. The gas is mainly steam, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and carbon dioxide. Temperatures exceed 3,000 degrees fahrenheit, which is above the melting point of steel. This extreme pressure and expansion is what makes explosives so dangerous. A small candle has more energy than a grenade, but a grenade is very destructive. The reason is that the energy in a grenade is released within a fraction of a second rather than several hours thereby causing such phenomenal pressures that the steel housing is shattered and pieces are sent flying.
To summarize two important differences between explosives and fireballs, first, explosives reach temperatures beyond 3,000 degrees fahrenheit. But it's impossible for hydrocarbons burning in the atmosphere to exceed about 1,800 degrees. Second, and most important, explosives create extreme pressures that cause the gas to expand at a supersonic rate. Nothing can withstand a supersonic blast of 3,000 degree gas at 5 million pounds per square inch. This allows explosives to tear apart steel beams, pulverize concrete, and shatter solid rock. As the blast of gas expands, it rapidly drops in pressure. In order to rip through steel, the explosive must be very close to it. This is why the soldier is laying chunks of C4 directly on the bombs he wants to destroy. Fireballs, on the other hand, have no significant pressure.
Another way to understand the difference between explosives and fireballs, is to consider that if a fireball would remain on the ground rather than rise in the air, you could get your clothes wet, hold your breath, and run into it. As soon as you passed through the boundary of flames, you would find yourself in a chamber of hydrocarbon vapor. There are no flames inside a fireball, so the temperature is low. More importantly, there is no high pressure inside. Of course, you would be roasted by the infrared radiation coming from the outside flames; however, my point is you could run into a fireball but you could not run into an explosive. If you think I'm exaggerating about running into a fireball, just watch as I pass my fingers through flames that are hot enough to melt aluminum.
Now that you know about explosives, you can understand one possible reason why the Military is hiding this video. If a missile exploded, the fireball would have started out as a bright, white light, and within one frame of video, it would have grown to the size of the Pentagon. This rapid expansion would prove that it was an explosive. If this video truly shows Flight 77, our military officials should be fired for keeping it a secret, because they are allowing accusations of corruption to run wild throughout the world. Our military is supposed to protect us, but the evidence and secrecy suggests that they have joined some mysterious crime syndicate.
Another suspicious aspect of this attack is that military officials refuse to state that these scraps are definitely from Flight 77. For example, this photo is at a military website, and the caption given to it by the military states that this item is "believed to be a piece of the aircraft" that crashed into the Pentagon. Military officials are not saying that it is a piece of the aircraft, rather they "believe" it is a piece. Also, they say it is a piece of the "aircraft," that hit the building, not a piece of Flight 77. Was this just a meaningless choice of words, or are military officials deliberately refusing to put their name on documents that clearly state that they found pieces of Flight 77? Could it be that military officials deliberately make vague statements so that they can fake innocence at a trial? The particular words in this caption make it easy to fake innocence. If the person who wrote that caption was taken to court, he could say, "I never said those scraps were from Flight 77, I said it was believed to be from whatever aircraft hit the Pentagon."
A more significant example is that military officials claim they have no idea who released these five images from the Pentagon security camera. Is our military really this incompetent or is everybody afraid to have their name associated with those images? Consider what would happen if this scam were exposed and a trial were conducted? Everybody who saw that security video saw something similar to a global hawk and a missile. They did not see Flight 77; therefore, everybody who saw that video could be accused of being an accessory to this scam since they helped to deceive the world about it. This would explain why nobody in the military is willing to admit to having seen that video. If there is ever a trial for this scam, everybody in the military will pretend they never had access to this video.